Conclusions Summary The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor that occurred on 26 April was the most serious accident ever to occur in the nuclear power industry. According to the reports published by government in Ukraine, this nuclear accident had lost hundreds of dollars.
Humans are exposed to radiation more than they realize. Within the territory of the former Soviet Union, short-term counter-measures were massive and, in general, reasonably timely and effective. In a recent IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer case-control study of thyroid cancer among female as well as male clean-up workers from Belarus, Russia and the Baltic countries, individual external and internal radiation doses were reconstructed for thyroid cancers and matched controls After several years of accumulation of dosimetric data from all available sources and dose reconstruction calculations based on environmental contamination data and mathematical models, it is now possible to arrive at a reasonable, although not highly accurate, assessment of the ranges of doses received by the various groups of population affected by the accident.
The present understanding of the late effects of protracted exposure to ionizing radiation is limited, since the dose-response assessments rely heavily on studies of exposure to high doses and animal experiments.
The lessons that could be learned from the Chernobyl accident were, therefore, numerous and encompassed all areas, including reactor safety and severe accident management, intervention criteria, emergency procedures, com-munication, medical treatment of irradiated persons, monitoring methods, radio-ecological processes, land and agricultural management, public information, etc.
Continued follow-up of the exposed population will be essential to an accurate description of the dynamics of the epidemic and prediction of future risk. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including the establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation.
Lives have been seriously disrupted by the Chernobyl accident, but from the radiological point of view, generally positive prospects for the future health of most individuals should prevail.
A prospective cohort of 8, Chernobyl Ukrainian liquidators was set-up to review this issue. The doses to these people ranged from a few grays to well above 10 grays to the whole body from external irradiation and comparable or even higher internal doses, in particular to the thyroid, from incorporation of radionuclides.
It also published an account of the accident, and its global fallout and exposures: Exposures from the Chernobyl accident 74 pages. Not only was miles around the plants irradiated, citizens and workers were exposed to higher levels of radiation, the workers even being developing acute radiation sickness.