The difference between perfect competition and imperfect competition can be observed when the marginal cost curve is horizontal perfect elasticity.
What is their purpose? There are smokers and nonsmokers among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent.
General rule claims, that the steeper is demand curve and the flatter is supply curve, the more of the tax will bear by consumers and the flatter is demand curve and the steeper is supply curve, the more of the tax will be bear by producers. It is only by altering the supply or the demand that they are able to modify the price.
How does this work itself out? They noted that if expenditures, because they more closely reflect lifetime income, are a more appropriate denominator than income for measuring progressivity, excise taxes might be less regressive.