Characteristics of individuals always develop in social contexts. An analysis of children born in and in Washington state found that being born to a mother under age 18 tripled the risk of being chronic offender.
Although risk factors may help identify which children are most in need of preventive interventions, they cannot identify which particular children will become serious or chronic offenders. Their misconception could not be further from the truth.
Types of juvenile delinquency
Parents who do not watch their young children consistently are less likely to prevent destructive or other unwanted behaviors and therefore more likely to punish. It was not until the Children's Act that changes were made to the way child offenders were punished. Males born to unmarried mothers under age 18 were 11 times more likely to become chronic juvenile offenders than were males born to married mothers over the age of 20 Conseur et al. Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice. Although the exact age of onset, peak, and age of desistance varies by offense, the general pattern has been remarkably consistent over time, in different countries, and for official and self-reported data. Merton believed that drug users are in this category. Those who have not learned, who are oppositional and show few prosocial behaviors toward peers, are at high risk of being rejected by their peers, of failing in school, and eventually of getting involved in serious delinquency Farrington and Wikstrom, ; Huesmann et al. What is the age of criminal responsibility? What works best is a combination of care, punitive, educational and employment measures. There may also be biological factors, such as high levels of serotonin , giving them a difficult temper and poor self-regulation, and a lower resting heart rate, which may lead to fearlessness. Now in England and Wales, as soon as a child reaches the age of ten, he or she can be convicted of criminal offences without any examination of his or her capacity to understand whether their behaviour is wrong. Children of antisocial parents are at heightened risk for aggressive, antisocial, and delinquent behavior e. Social-level risk factors are discussed next; these include family and peer relationships. The robustness and validity of much risk factor research is criticized for: Determinism , e. The reason?
Communities in which criminal activities are common tend to establish criminal behavior as acceptable. Hyperactivity and aggression are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure Brown et al.
Furthermore there is the question of how the delinquent peer group became delinquent initially. It is, however, widely recognized that the more risk factors a child or adolescent experiences, the higher their risk for delinquent behavior.
These can vary from oppositional-defiant disorderwhich is not necessarily aggressive, to antisocial personality disorderoften diagnosed among psychopaths. There have been suggestions that early-onset delinquents are more likely than later-onset delinquents to be more serious and persistent offenders e.
But what age is the right age? Education also promotes economic growth, national productivity and innovation, and values of democracy and social cohesion.
The social behavior characteristics that best predict delinquent behavior, however, are physical aggression and oppositionality Lahey et al. This can be done by proving the child understood that what he or she had done was wrong according to the ordinary standards of reasonable adults.
based on 76 review