An overview of water soluble vitamins and its biological use

Water soluble vitamins wikipedia

Vitamin B12 is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the liver for many years. Vitamin B12 Cobalamins Meat, organs Liver , Eggs The value of eating certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. Vitamin C synthesis was accomplished in after the chemical structure of ascorbic acid was established by British and Swiss workers. An antioxidant can be a vitamin, mineral, or a carotenoid, present in foods, that slows the oxidation process and acts to repair damage to cells of the body. Baker et al. Therefore, most vitamin supplementation is in the form of pyridoxine hydrochloride and analysis for pyridoxine activity by microbiological assay of diet ingredients probably measures pyridoxal phosphate and other intermediates as well. Pantothenic Acid deficiency is uncommon due to its wide availability in most foods. These have closely allied ring structures and many have been isolated as derivatives in various animals or microbiological preparations. In a case-control study of laryngeal cancer, Graham et al.

Pyridoxine is sensitive to ultraviolet light in neutral or alkaline solutions. Too Much Vitamin C.

Water soluble vitamins functions

This could partly be explained by the correlation between the sources of vitamin C and dietary fiber. The controversy over using mega doses of vitamin C to prevent or cure the common cold and other disorders has not been resolved. Vitamin B6 is involved in the synthesis of DNA bases; it is a coenzyme in the biosynthesis of thymidine. The effect of vitamin C was also evaluated in two case-control studies of colorectal cancer in Australia. No differences in the prevalence of esophagitis with or without atrophy or dysplasia were noted in the two groups examined at 13 months. Pantothenic acid is involved in adrenal function and for the production of cholesterol. Certain cereal brans may have pantothenic acid bound in a form unavailable to fish because of the low digestibility coefficient and should not be relied upon as the sole pantothenic acid source in the diet.

The lower urinary levels and clearance in cancer patients could be due in part to increased plasma binding rather than trapping by tumor tissue. It is not clear how vitamin B12 supplementation will affect the levels of B12 in chronic alcoholics.

Vitamin C supplementation, however, did not reduce the diameters or weights of the tumors. Liver Disease Human Studies The human liver contains approximately 60 mg of nicotinic acid free and covalently bound in coenzymes per kilogram wet weight—an amount similar to concentrations in other tissues Wiss and Weber, ; it contains no special stores of nicotinic acid or its derivatives.

Spittle found that in healthy people under the age of 25, cholesterol levels tended to fall when 1 g of vitamin C per day was added to an otherwise normal diet.

Too much niacin inhibits growth.

benefits of water soluble vitamins

Individual fish ingesting adequate amounts of the vitamin show little variation in total erythrocyte counts. No differences in the prevalence of esophagitis with or without atrophy or dysplasia were noted in the two groups examined at 13 months.

For those over the age of fifty, the dietary guidelines recommend consuming vitamin B12 in its crystalline form fortified foods or multivitamin. The allowance for adult females was therefore set at 2.

Short note on water soluble vitamins

It has possible involvement in citrulline synthesis and may have effects on purine and pyrimidine synthesis. An interrelationship between thiamine and niacin exists since both vitamins are coenzymes in intermediary metabolism whereby food is oxidized to furnish energy for physiological functions, to maintain homeostasis, and for body temperature maintenance in homeotherms. The technique is well developed to measure the N1-methyl derivative in mammalian urine. Raw egg white should not be incorporated into moist fish diets. Ascorbic acid is also involved in erythrocyte maturation. Special attention should be paid to folate folic acid intake during pregnancy, in order to avoid birth defects. Blue slime patch disease due to biotin deficiency was reported in trout. In studies of esophageal cancer in the Caspian Littoral of Iran, inverse associations were found between esophageal cancer and consumption of fresh fruits and estimated vitamin C intake based on correlational and case-control data Cook-Mozaffari, ; Cook-Mozaffari et al. Dietary Sources Vitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods. Silverman et al. The first specific signs have consistently appeared in and about the eyes of salmonids, carps and catfish. Symptoms include cramps, nausea, mental confusion, and skin problems.

Since all the patients had gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic failure, and sepsis, the authors suggested that malabsorption was a probable cause of the thiamin deficiency.

After replacement of pantothenic acid in the diet, recovery is rapid for those fish still feeding and gross deficiency symptoms disappear after about four weeks on the recovery diet although evidence of necrosis and scarring remains.

It is not known if different results would have been obtained if the study had been continued.

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Chapter The Vitamins